DIS '18- Proceedings of the 19th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility

Full Citation in the ACM Digital Library

SESSION: Provocations and Work-in-Progress

Tangible Interactive Upper Limb Training Device

To regain motor abilities, stroke patients should persist regular and intense rehabilitation exercises but in reality they are usually demotivated by boringness and frustration of repetitive exercises. Researches have highlighted video games-based exercise as an approach to increasing patient engagement. However, it might not be appropriate for elderly patients. They are generally not familiar with video games and as growing old, they are suffering from decreased learning ability. This project aims to provide a tangible interactive device to better assist elderly patients in the upper limb rehabilitation process. We have integrated three types of exercise (forearm, wrist and finger) into one single device and adopted physical stimulation like light, sound and vibration. Each exercise has been redesigned in order to engage and motivate patients in the recovery process.

Exploring Augmented Reality Approaches to Real-Time Captioning: A Preliminary Autoethnographic Study

We explore an augmented reality (AR) approach to real-time captioning for people who are deaf and hard of hearing. In contrast to traditional captioning, which uses an external, fixed display (e.g., laptop or large screen), our approach allows users to manipulate the shape, number and placement of captions in 3D space. We discuss design factors, describe two early prototypes, and report on an autoethnographic evaluation of the prototypes. Preliminary findings suggest that, compared to traditional laptop-based captions, HMD captioning may increase glanceability, improve visual contact with speakers, and support access to other visual information (e.g., slides).

MaxiFab: Applied Fabrication to Advance Period Technologies

MaxiFab is a multifaceted collaborative effort aimed to address current shortcomings of menstrual technologies through digital fabrication techniques. We explore using 3D printing to produce customizable frames for sanitary napkins and laser cutting to fabricate fused washable sanitary napkins. Our preliminary explorations create menstrual products that address some of the most pressing problems with current period technologies---namely, access and cost barriers, waste, and lack of customization. Our work aims to reduce stigma regarding the discussion of menstruation while contextualizing the topic as an under-examined design research space.

Country Road Finder: Exploring Beauty when Driving Around

Driving around a countryside destination and finding the scenic beauty is an intriguing exposure for metropolitans. Our route planner Country Road Finder proposes a lodge, a farm, and the connecting route, for farm-staying to show initiation of the area's local culture and practice. Our algorithm calculates country-road scores for a pleasant driving around experience, combining destination recommendation system and route navigation system. This research shows the routes in 3 peripheral areas near Tokyo, and discusses findings from initial user studies with metropolitan visitors about the drivers' view and experience.

Neither One is Enough: Exploring the Use of Wrist-worn Activity Trackers to Assist Acute Psychiatric Healthcare

In this study, we conducted a field study involving patients and healthcare workers in an acute psychiatric unit with the aim of identifying the reasons for inconsistencies among measurements of sleep/awake patterns, the observations of nurses, and the reports of patients. After identifying the reasons for the inconsistencies, we designed an interactive caring system that merges multiple data sources to present a unified view of sleep/awake patterns. In so doing, we were able to leverage observations from nurses and the reports of patients to resolve prior inconsistencies.

Bod-IDE: An Augmented Reality Sandbox for eFashion Garments

Electronic fashion (eFashion) garments use technology to augment the human body with wearable interaction. In developing ideas, eFashion designers need to prototype the role and behavior of the interactive garment in context; however, current wearable prototyping toolkits require semi-permanent construction with physical materials that cannot easily be altered. We present Bod-IDE, an augmented reality 'mirror' that allows eFashion designers to create virtual interactive garment prototypes. Designers can quickly build, refine, and test on-the-body interactions without the need to connect or program electronics. By envisioning interaction with the body in mind, eFashion designers can focus more on reimagining the relationship between bodies, clothing, and technology.

Placing Music in Space: A Study on Music Appreciation with Spatial Mapping

We investigate the potential of music appreciation using spatial mapping techniques, which allow us to "place" audio sources in various locations within a physical space. We consider possible ways of this new appreciation style and list some design variables, such as how to define coordinate systems, how to show visually, and how to place the sound sources. We conducted an exploratory user study to examine how these design variables affect users' music listening experiences. Based on our findings from the study, we discuss how we should develop systems that incorporate these design variables for music appreciation in the future.

SilverCycling: Evaluating Persuasive Strategies to Promote Physical Activity among Older Adults

We present "SilverCycling", a system consisting of an augmented portable bike and a persuasive see-through mirror aimed at encouraging older adults to be physically active. We evaluated the perceived persuasiveness of seven commonly used persuasive strategies (N=9) within SilverCycling in order to elicit the most relevant ones for a field test in future work. We found that social strategies are preferred over non-social ones and that strategies using extrinsic motivators like virtual rewards should be avoided.

Explorations on Reciprocal Interplay in Things Ecology

There is growing interest in designing smart things that are both connected (IoT) and also acting local. Yet, the explorative behaviors of such smart things in the context of a connected ecology are not much explored. This study explores perceptive qualities of reciprocal interplay from a perspective of systemic relations. We conducted the HiddenLocal workshop with the outcome of four designed IoT systems which emphasize the complexity of things-to-things interaction in different scenarios. This paper reports on one of the four systems and investigates how reciprocal interplay can be designed in the things community of our designed system.

Walkers' Union: Designing New Urban Walking Rituals with Blockchain

This paper describes a blockchain-enabled system aimed to facilitate urban walking as a lifestyle choice. This work-in-progress is based on an provisional classification of blockchain's social affordances into four core features. These features are used as design materials to enable 'walking contracts' between humans and non-humans as triggers for urban walking.

Exploring Cognitive Playfulness Through Zero Interactions

Many emerging technologies, products and services today try to use diverse methods of interaction to provide playful experiences. Increasingly more interactive features and techniques are being introduced to afford users new experiences and enrich our living environment. While many of these playful experiences can be achieved through various types of physical, sensory and social interactions, this paper attempts to focus on how 'no-interaction' can achieve playfulness in relation to our cognitive experience. If there is a way to give someone a playful experience without any physical, sensory and social interactions, where and how can we apply this approach or phenomenon? Here we share a provocation that tries to demonstrate a tangible means whereby such an idea could be used to explore potential user experiences within HCI.

Exploring the Knowledge Creation Practices of UX Designers on Stack Exchange

The contours of user experience (UX) design practice have been developed by a diverse array of practitioners and academics in an array of disciplinary traditions, leaving UX without a coherent and agreed upon body of disciplinary knowledge or a concrete path to become a professional. Consequently, UX designers rely upon online knowledge resources to develop and maintain their competence. In this work-in-progress, we conducted an exploratory investigation of question and answer (Q&A) communication within the UX Stack Exchange community, analyzing the topics that UX designers have raised in questions and answers. Our preliminary analysis contributes a typology of knowledge needs that were articulated by UX designers as a support for their practice. Drawing on prior work, we discuss three distinctive characteristics of UX knowledge desired by designers.

We Are Not All Makers: The Paradox of Plurality In The Maker Movement

This paper draws from a critical examination of media and literature surrounding the maker movement, and interviews with 10 women engaged in maker activities. It aims to explore the barriers to women's participation in the maker movement and, in particular, the barriers to women's adoption of a maker identity. Three phenomena are discussed; firstly the problematic disjunct between inclusivity of maker rhetoric and hierarchies in maker practice. Secondly, how the purported eclecticism of materials and techniques in the maker movement may actually lessen the likelihood of women self-identifying as makers. Thirdly, how women tend to have a qualitatively different approach to technological practice as compared to their male peers and the subtle ways in which this runs counter to normative maker values. I suggest that minimising the identity-centric approach of the maker movement may help to ameliorate these barriers, but ultimately, more research must be undertaken to verify or challenge the conclusions drawn here.

An Artistic Provocation to Explore Effects and Opportunities of Virtual Surreal Spaces

The concept of surreal virtual space is used in this paper to describe a space which looks realistic but is impossible to exist in reality. For this project, we developed a 3D virtual space using Google Cardboard and an Android mobile device. Referring to the 2D drawing, "Relativity," of M.C. Escher, the virtual space was designed to have multi-directional but connected stairs. This work was exhibited with other artworks at a gallery for a period of three weeks. Despite some minor sensory confusion, all audiences experienced a degree of place illusion, enjoyment and a sense of self-awareness even though the virtual environment did not provide a visual representation of the audience's own body. For future work, we plan to investigate the advantages of these effects and apply them to everyday non-virtual environments.

Dark Intentions or Persuasion?: UX Designers' Activation of Stakeholder and User Values

Formalized frameworks that reference ethics and values have received increasing attention in the HCI community. These methods emphasize the importance of values in relation to design but provide little guidance to reveal the values that are present or have impact on designers' decision making. In this work-inprogress, we identify the values considered by student UX designers when conducting an authentic design task, allowing for interrogation of the possible intentions that underlie their decision making. Our exploratory analysis revealed that participants had sensitivity towards user values, but often contradicted these values through dark, often tacit, intentions to persuade users, thereby achieving stakeholder goals. We provide provocations for future research on the role of ethics and values in practice and design education.

Designing Social Playware Mediated Communication with Contingent Feedback Devices

A majority of children with neurodevelopmental disorders struggle to acquire communication and social skills. Different types of therapies apply methodologies to encourage social interaction, speech, and vocalizations for these children; however, these methods are not sufficiently engaging or are not used with the necessary frequency. In this paper, we propose playful experience-based solutions to empower therapies for children with neurodevelopmental disorders using social playware technology. We designed two devices that deliver contingent feedback in accordance with applied behavior analysis and speech therapies for encouraging and monitoring the growth of a child's communication skills. Under a therapeutic support tool scenario to be applied at home or during after-school activities, we discuss the design of the devices and the potential for interactive therapy.

Visualization Tool for Environmental Sensing and Public Health Data

To assist residents affected by oil and gas development, public health professionals in a non-profit organization have collected community data, including symptoms, air quality, and personal stories. However, the organization was unable to aggregate and visualize these data computationally. We present the Environmental Health Channel, an interactive web-based tool for visualizing environmental sensing and public health data. This tool enables discussing and disseminating scientific evidence to reveal local environmental and health impacts of industrial activities.

IdleBot: Exploring the Design of Serendipitous Artifacts

We are increasingly surrounded by interactive, connected and engaging "things" that demand attention and convey a sense of continuous pace into our personal spaces. In this work, we explore how things could be designed from this opposite perspective: seemingly aware, but non-engaging. IdleBot is a very furry robotic puppet that is waiting. Unlike many applications in social robotics, IdleBot has neither clear purpose, nor explicit functionality--it merely exists and waits. The subtleness of its interaction, consisting of mostly idle motion, is the starting point to investigate forms of interaction bordering non-interaction situated in a personal context. Using data about human waiting behavior from an observational study, we designed a fully working prototype in two design iterations that embodies different modes of waiting and evaluated this design for its effect and acceptance of idle motions in context.

Hacking Occupational Therapy Tools for Center-based Care

Community center-based occupational therapists (OTs) working with a large number of patients daily often have difficulties tracking and recording patient progress, and ensuring patients are motivated and performing exercises correctly. Rather than simply introducing new technologies to address these problems, we propose low-cost hacking of existing equipment available at these centers. This approach is philosophically consistent with the creative, pragmatic approach OTs take in their work, and is likely to lead to better acceptance without sacrificing the quality of the exercises. To illustrate our approach, we modify two existing training devices with simple digital interaction in order to nudge patients to improve movement quality, and to collect data to track progress. We present our preliminary results when employing these modified devices at a community center.

Ring x2: Designing Gestures for Smart Rings using Temporal Calculus

We introduce "Ring×2," a design space for gesture input with two smart rings. Wearing two rings at once opens new input opportunities, unexplored by the community so far, such as bimanual ring gestures or shifting input from one smart ring to the other to effectively manage situational impairments, such as encumbrance. To enable such developments and explorations, we present a formal description of designing two-ring gestures from the perspective of temporal calculus, a logic-based framework for reasoning about events and actions occurring in time, which we exemplify on a dataset of 83 bimanual gestures performed by 24 participants with two rings. We hope that our exploration of two-ring gestures and our design approach rooted in temporal calculus will be provocative and inspiring for the community, leading to new designs of input techniques for smart rings.

WiredRadio: A Study of Living with Radio Awareness

This paper reports on early field explorations with WiredRadio. WiredRadio is a device that intercepts 2.4GHz radio activity and based on the received data signal strength activates a motor with a string attached to it. Similar to the classical 'dangling sting' installation by Jeremijenko, the more wireless network traffic there is, the more will the string move. The paper discuss insights derived from a field deployment where WiredRadio was installed in a family house for three weeks. The insights deals with the family's perception and understanding of WiredRadio, their relationship with WiredRadio as an artifact and ambient display and how WiredRadio influence their understanding of wireless data traffic and what it may represent.

Designing for Co-located and Virtual Social Interactions in Residential Care

In this paper we explore the feasibility and design challenges in supporting co-located and virtual social interactions in residential care by building on the practice of reminiscence. Motivated by the challenges of social interaction in this context, we first explore the feasibility of a reminiscence-based social interaction tool designed to stimulate conversation in residential care with different stakeholders. Then, we explore the design challenges in supporting an assisting role in co-located reminiscence sessions, by running pilot studies with a technology probe. Our findings point to the feasibility of the tool and the willingness of stakeholders to contribute in the process, although with some skepticism about virtual interactions. The reminiscence sessions showed that compromises are needed when designing for both story collection and conversation stimulation, evidencing specific design areas where further exploration is needed.

Body Inspired Design for Knitted Body-Protection Wearables

In this provocation, we aim to show that body inspired design techniques can be used to inspire the development process of advanced functional knitting technologies. We believe that approaching this area from the perspective of industrial and interaction design spheres, could potentially complement fashion and textile designers' viewpoints. We conclude that interactions with technology go beyond traditional "computer" based systems. In this case, the patterns and functionalities programmed into the material using circular knitting. This is demonstrated by reflecting on an Industrial Design educational module which focused on the design of "Body protection wearables". Students were asked to limit materials by creating designs that could be produced as one single piece, without post-production procedures. Testing their designs with full-scale prototypes at each stage of development, the students could understand potential advantages and drawbacks just by wearing them.

Design Challenges for Reconnecting in Later Life: A Qualitative Study

Friendships and social interactions are renown contributors to wellbeing. As such, keeping a healthy amount of relationships becomes very important as people age and the size of their social network tends to decrease. In this paper, we take a step back and explore reconnection --find out about or re-contact old friends, an emerging topic due to the increased use of computer-mediated technology by older adults to maintain friendships and form new ones. We report on our findings from semi-structured interviews with 28 individuals from Costa Rica and Poland. The interviews aimed to explore whether there is a wish to reconnect, and the challenges encountered by older adults to reconnect. We contribute with design considerations for tools allowing older adults to reconnect, discussing opportunities for technology.

Exploring Dynamic Expressions on Soft Wearables for Physical Exercises

Recent design approaches of wearables for physical exercising are often alienating the data from its specific experiences and/or limited to conventional display modalities for presenting information. As an alternative perspective, the aim of this paper is to explore in-situ social and individual experiences that activity related dynamic changes on garment surfaces might evoke in the context of exercising at the gyms. To investigate these, we conducted a design workshop (N=11, 3 gymgoers, 5 interaction and 3 fashion designers). Our results provide design insights for further research on how dynamic expression could alter (1) wearer's sense of achievement via solidifying unobservable efforts & achievements and could (2) trigger social interactions.

Text Visualisation Tool for Exploring Digitised Historical Documents

This paper describes a prototype timeline tool designed for humanities researchers exploring digitised historical documents. The tool visualises keyword instances in context mapped by date, and can be used to explore commentary around themes through time. Through designing the tool and evaluating it with humanities scholars, the role of the designer in the digital humanities is explored. Interview evaluation with historians provides evidence for the tool's capacity to support historical research, but also raises design issues by pointing to the value of simple, minimal design in this domain for interpretability.

Once Upon a Future: An Audio Drama Game for Episodic Imagination

Envisioning the future in a multidisciplinary collaboration continues to be a challenge. This paper presents a tool for engineers and designers to envision applications of emerging technologies. Drawing on the "suspension of disbelief" in audio drama and episodic memory theory about creativity, we build a four-act board game for creative narration. Participants are guided to enact future application scenarios by using playing cards along with theme music and sound effects. To test the tool, we conducted three workshops to discuss the distinct advantages and challenges of this approach.

Pick, Place, And Follow: A Ball Run for Visually Impaired Children

Conventional ball runs are usually made from wood and used with marbles. Their easy handling and comprehensible principle of action and reaction -- a marble placed into it will run down the slope -- make them a popular therapeutic toy among occupational therapists and related professionals when exercising with impaired children. However, traditional ball runs are often too fast paced and not perceivable for children with low vision, making it impossible to fixate the moving ball with their eyes. We created a virtual ball run with tangible elements to extend it with properties only the digital can afford, for example, magnification of the marbles or change of color or physical behavior of the ball run in order to support visually impaired children in tracking them with their eyes. We report how we conceived the concept in a participatory design process involving four therapists, three children with visual impairment, and one ophthalmologist.

Building a Community of Audio Game Designers - Towards an Online Audio Game Editor

We introduce the Online Audio Game Editor (OAGE) which we have conceived to (a) advance our understanding of audio games in general, (b) to investigate the audio game design process, (c) and to build a community of audio game designers. Thus, OAGE constitutes a fully-implemented prototype to create, play, and (later) share audio games online. Our intention is to iteratively extend this editor to respond to the users' feedback and needs. Through a process of reflective analysis and adaptations, we aim to uncover more of the very core of audio game design, a genre of computer games which is currently under-researched. In contrast to wide-spread video games, little is known about proper design processes in audio games or valid guidelines to aid their development. We show how OAGE is intended to serve as a research vehicle to recruit audio game designers as participants (a significant challenge due to their small number), to catch up with the state of knowledge about video games, and also to promote audio games.

Giving up Control - A Speculative Air Pollution Mask to Reflect on Autonomy and Technology Design

In many metropolitan cities air pollution regularly exceeds safe levels, with numerous consequences for health and well-being. Current technological solutions often aim to give users control over their air pollution exposure by measuring, processing and sharing data about pollutant levels. We created a speculative face mask that opens and closes autonomously, taking control away from the user. The goal of the speculative design was to highlight the urgency and effect of air pollution on individuals in a tangible and embodied way. Through this critical design object, we question existing solutionist approaches to air pollution and pose questions about autonomy and individual responsibility. In this paper, we share our development process and the conceptual idea behind the mask to inform and inspire other critical objects to address important societal issues at an individual level.

Human-Drone Interaction: Drone Delivery & Services for Social Events

In recent years, there has been an increasing research interest in drones and its applications such as a drone delivery service, ping-pong play companion, and jogging companion. However, despite the growing interest in drones for social scenarios, there are only a few drones have paid attention to factors such as drone's movements, appearance, and comfortable distance for natural human-robot interaction (HRI). In this study, we explore the critical factors for successful human-drone interactions (HDI) in a social scenario, and proposed a social friendly design by implementing new appearance and behaviors of a drone.

Ecphoria Player: Exploring, Revisiting, & Living-with a Lifetime of Digital Music

With the massive adoption of music streaming services globally, metadata is being generated that captures people's music listening histories in more precise detail than ever before. These archives offer a valuable and overlooked resource for designing new ways of supporting people in experiencing the music they have listened to over the course of their lives. Yet, little research has demonstrated how metadata can be applied as a material in design practice. We propose the Ecphoria Player, a device that leverages music listening history metadata to support experiences of exploring and living with music from one's past. We report on our design decisions, rationale, and implications for future design researchers.

ARtLens: Enhancing Museum Visitors' Engagement with African Art

We present ARtLens, an Augmented Reality application for the Microsoft HoloLens, which allows museum visitors to actively interact with and learn about artifacts. We designed ARtLens to enhance learning and engagement with museum collections while keeping the focus on the original artifact. ARtLens provides context for an artifact by supplying audio and visual information, and guides visitors in exploring the original artifact. It also allows users to directly manipulate, using gesture-based interactions, holographic representations of related artifacts next to original artifacts in the gallery. We intend to study the impact of ARtLens on object-based learning and engagement of museum visitors in an African Art gallery.

Dynamic Displays at Wrist for Real Time Visualization of Affective Data

Emotions are vital to our lives but could be difficult to recognize and understand. Traditional visualizations of emotions tend to be time-series graph on screen displays limiting user engagement in their real-time sense-making. This paper explores the feasibility of smart materials for developing novel dynamic displays on skin for real time visualization of affective data. We report prototyping two such displays and their evaluation with 6 participants, and discuss their qualities such as ambiguity, slowly unfolding change, and lack of light emission together with their temporal constraints and private-public tension for affective meaning disclosure.

Can Interactive Systems Be Designed for Conviviality?: A Case Study

Can interactive systems be designed for conviviality? A response in the affirmative comes in the form of two convivial tools, Helping Hand and Tilting Table, that empower individuals suffering limitations in reaching and dexterity. Our interdisciplinary team developed Helping Hand and Tilting Table as analogues to a home builder's power tools, but here advanced by mechatronics and transported to home and workplace. This paper presents the two tools in the context of routine, domestic and working tasks, speaks to their design and basic behaviors, and offers an overview of their formative user evaluation involving older adults as part of an iterative, human-centered design process. Helping Hand and Tilting Table serve as design exemplars of enabling technologies targeting people with limitations in performing everyday tasks. But more broadly, striving for conviviality is what this paper hopes to encourage in designers.

Towards Multisensory Storming

Current digital system interfaces are mainly based on vision and hearing. HCI practitioners and researchers need to introduce unconventional senses in interaction design in order to avoid sensory deprivation in digital life and enhance information accessibility. In this paper, we present a novel technique, called Multisensory Storming, which aims at supporting the multisensory interaction design process. Multisensory Storming is a group method enabling the generation of new ideas and design proposals in physical contexts through exercises that allow exploring all the human senses.

Designing Conversational Interfaces to Reduce Dissonance

Conversational interfaces-computer interfaces that use text or voice for human-computer interaction-are one of many interaction modalities in interactive systems. Their use has expanded with the growth and range of products that are both digital and physical in nature. But users' expectations of conversational experiences are not being met. In addition, expectations may not be met in different ways across people. This paper aims to provoke dialogue among design researchers and practitioners regarding the design of an interaction modality that is commonly found in human-to-human interaction. It focuses on the design of conversational interfaces such as virtual assistants to illustrate the quandary. Finally, the paper proposes a phenomenon for the issue-a type of dissonance-and introduces tactics to reduce dissonance. It sheds light on potential approaches to design as well as complications that may occur.

A Virtual Environment Gesture Interaction System for People with Dementia

As dementia will most likely become an impactful challenge for our future society, it is imperative to maintain the well-being of the diverse group of people with dementia (PwD). Thus, appropriate interventions that effectively trigger identity-stabilizing memories, and at the same time encourage sensorimotor activities, have to be designed and implemented. To that end, we present a novel natural user interface (NUI) system combined with a reminiscence-provoking virtual 3D environment (VE). With it, PwD can delve into memories while interacting with the VE over dementia-fitted gestures. The results of the preliminary evaluations are promising, as they show that most PwD get immersed and cheerfully engage in gesture interactions after a short settling-in period.

transFORM - A Cyber-Physical Environment Increasing Social Interaction and Place Attachment in Underused, Public Spaces

The emergence of social networks and apps has reduced the importance of physical space as a locus for social interaction. In response, we introduce transFORM, a cyber-physical environment installed in under-used, outdoor, public spaces. transFORM embodies our understanding of how a responsive, cyber-physical architecture can augment social relationship and increase place attachment. In this paper we critically examine the social interaction problem in the context of our increasingly digital society, present our ambition, and introduce our prototype which we will iteratively design and test. Cyber-physical interventions at large scale in public spaces are an inevitable future, and this paper serves to establish the fundamental terms of this frontier.

Designing Systems in the Digital Immortality Era

Society is undergoing a relentless digital transformation process. This process is creating a digital copy of every entity present in the physical world and these digital goods will be inherited through centuries establishing a direct link between distant generations. Advances in artificial intelligence make the promise for future whole brain emulation enabling the possibility of uploading the human mind on a digital system. This would enable the possibility of interacting with immortal digital clones of deceased people. This paper wants to start investigating the consequences of the emergence of the concept of digital immortality.

Visualising the Landscape of Human-Food Interaction Research

While conducting a review of food-related technology research, we discovered that activity in this area is skyrocketing across a broad range of disciplinary interests and concerns. The dynamic and heterogeneous nature of the research presents a challenge to scholars wishing to critically engage with prior work, identify gaps and ensure impact. In response to this challenge, we are developing an online visualisation tool: an app that affords diffractive reading of the literature, mapping interferences and differences from varied perspectives. We present our first iteration of the app, which enables scholars to navigate the literature through seven lenses-focus, agency, domain, date of publication, author keywords, and publication venue and type. Here we present the first iteration of the app, toward receiving critical input from concerned researchers, to validate our approach and ensure relevance moving forward.

MeTAP: A Personalized Spatial Memory Training for Improving Functional Autonomy of Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairments in China

Motivated by previous studies on increasing the autonomy of older adults with dementia, research on the effectiveness of spaced repetition as a learning strategy, and the ever increasing number of left-behind elderly in Chinese urban and especially rural areas, we develop a customizable spatial memory training mobile application to help improve adults with early dementia and mild cognitive impairments with performing instrumental activities of daily living by training important spatial information. The mobile application comes with two paired modes: Caregiver mode and Patient mode. It allows caregivers to create virtual rooms in which items are tagged and placed in. The person with dementia can then test his or her recall of the spatial location of items in different rooms with an intuitive touch-based interaction. Data collected during present and past training sessions then determines future training sessions and provide caregivers a way to track performance over time. Additionally, through cloud-based behavioral modeling and remote data sharing, it can enable personalized spaced repetition memory learning and offer real-time behavioral data for the medical specialist and caregivers. Three rounds of evaluation involving interviews and in-field testing had been conducted with promising results.

MemoryPin: Turning Digitally Co-Present Moments into Tangible Memory Keepsakes

MemoryPin is a digital keepsake device that-like a photo album-provides tangible access to memories formed during online social interactions. By tangible, we mean that we designed these keepsake physical forms to afford distinctive storage and interactivity for selected digital memories created during an individual's everyday social media experience with others. Through a series of iterative design inquiries, we explored new forms and possibilities for digital-content-bearing artifacts and built our initial prototype in this work in progress.

Using Experiential-Learning and Iterative Design to Benefit Colorado's Refugees

Rising trends of immigration and refugee resettlement is a global concern with reliance on local solutions. To support this population's needs, organizations such as the city of Aurora's Village Exchange Center work to build community and resettle new arrivals in Colorado. This paper presents design nuances for creating a digital information and communication technology (ICT) tool for Village Exchange Center's Natural Helpers program. Human-centered design methodologies were used to develop a digital resource guide based off of a previous paper incarnation. Four unique needs arose from our process: (1) a need for community feedback, (2) flexible service categorization, (3) password lapse considerations, and (4) the need for location context. We also discuss potential benefits of collaboration between students and low-resource organizations. Designing for refugees, immigrants, or similar populations with these considerations can improve users' experience and overall ICT utility.

Artifact Mixtape: Curating Music in Personal Tangible Artifacts

The transition from physical to digital and cloud media has enabled more personalized music appreciation. However, it is questionable whether the current media adequately supports music's role in constructing self-identity. To investigate this issue, we conducted exploratory interviews, from which we derived that today's digital music service can discourage listeners from exploring, expressing, and reflecting on themselves with music. We presumed that inducing people to curate the music in personal tangible artifacts can resolve the issue, which is why we devised the concept of Artifact Mixtape. We introduced the design and usage of the system and added our hypotheses about how it will contribute to establishing self-identity with music.

Verbal Design: A Participatory Design Approach with Illiterate Patient User Groups

This paper presents a Participatory Design approach focused on applying primarily Verbal Design techniques working alongside illiterate People with Diabetes (PWD) from low socio-economic groups in Pakistan. After gathering a set of initial findings through classic Participatory Design and encountering several challenges, we discuss the development of our Verbal Design Approach in response which uses Narrative Scoping and Persona along with Invisible Design videos to structure and drive discussion and document design. Preliminary work showed that the approach resonated with our illiterate participants.

Investigating the Effects of Legacy Bias: User Elicited Gestures from the End Users Perspective

User elicitation studies are commonly used for designing gestures by putting the users in the designers' seat. One of the most encountered phenomenon during these studies is legacy bias. It refers to users' tendency to transfer gestures from the existing technologies to their designs. The literature presents varying views on the topic; some studies asserted that legacy bias should be diminished, whereas other stated that it should be preserved. Yet, to the best of our knowledge, none of the elicitation studies tested their designs with the end users. In our study, 36 participants compared two gesture sets with and without legacy. Initial findings showed that legacy gesture set had higher scores. However, the interviews uncovered that some non-legacy gestures were also favored due to their practicality and affordances. We contribute to the legacy bias literature by providing new insights from the end users' perspective.

Designing Personalized Movement-based Representations to Support Yoga

An inherent consequence of the turn to a third-wave HCI is the need to design for diversity in interaction and therefore a need for personalization of movement-based interactions, based on each's skills and characteristics. However, one of the major challenges is the question how designers can represent movement. Personalization is an essential issue in Yoga practice because there are no standard movements. The specific actions and poses depend on the individual body conditions of each practitioner. Three movement-based representations for personalized feedback during Yoga were developed (visual, auditory and haptic). Different participants offered different explanations about the feedback they received during the exercises. This leads us to believe that there is indeed a need for personalization of movement-based representations.

What's It Mean to "Be Social" in VR?: Mapping the Social VR Design Ecology

The emerging ecology of commercial social VR currently includes a diverse set of applications and competing models of what it means to be social in VR. This study maps a slice of this ecology, comparing and contrasting ways different applications frame, support, shape, or constrain social interaction. We deploy a method of design-oriented autobiographical landscape research to examine five platforms: Facebook Spaces, Rec Room, High Fidelity, VRChat, and AltspaceVR. We analyze design choices underlying these environments and draw attention to issues of space and place, locomotion, and social mechanics. Drawing on this analysis, we identify key issues and concerns for future research and design in social VR.


MagicPAPER: An Integrated Shadow-Art Hardware Device Enabling Touch Interaction on Paper

Touch interaction is usually implemented on a computer screen or a projected surface. However, tactile quality of paper is attractive and intuitive for people to manipulate in traditional paintings and storytelling. In order to enable touch interaction on paper, we present MagicPAPER, a shadow-art device that consists of a pen, kraft paper, a projector, a gesture sensing device, and a software system. With the purpose of illustrating how MagicPAPER effectively integrates the art-design process with the computer and communication technology, we have developed eight interactive applications simply based on kraft paper and mark pen: the Dimension Door, Balls, Palette, Flat Cube, Piano, Color potion, Fast mask- changing, and Candle. Finally, we experimented with MagicPAPER and demonstrated its interactive effects by detecting the gesture of a finger and pen on kraft paper and projecting it into eight interactive applications. Our research results show that MagicPAPER successfully carries out paper-based touch interactions.

Expansion of Textile Expression Utilizing Op Art Methods and Transmissive Liquid Crystal Film, and Progress toward Its Use in Garments

In this study, we describe the development of new textiles and garments created through the cross-fertilization of op art methods and smart materials. We have developed a pattern expression method that involves layering transmissive liquid crystal film into which dot patterns have been cut and modifying the pattern by changing the level of the film's transparency. In addition, we demonstrated that it is possible to express a greater variety of patterns by combining this with a printed pattern. Furthermore, as an application, the design of garments is proposed.

The "Choose Your Own Beverage" Table: Swing Compass in the Wild

Swing Compass is a configurable recommendation system that turns tablet computers into a compass-like device whose interface shows recommended items at different directions. Turning the compass 90 degrees results in different sets of options. Based on the concept of embodied metaphor and choice architecture theory, the design aims to prompt people to reflect on their choices. The first instance of Swing Compass comes with a designed wooden case, turning one single tablet computer into a personal handheld compass. The second instance includes a designed round table, repurposing five tablet computers for a tabletop compass to be placed in public space. This paper describes and proposes a prototype demonstration of the Swing Compass table situated next to a café. The featured items include different kinds of drinks and containers, with connection to their destinations in the environment. The goal is to elicit reflection on the environmental impacts of choices of beverage.

UMorph: Self-Change Tracker to Reflect Yourself to the Future and Past

Taking photos has become not only a daily but also an automatic activity. But how do we use all these pictures? Storage and retrieval are certainly not as well developed as capturing. Storage systems organize photos in the temporal dimension, for example, the Facebook service "Year in Review" or in visual diaries, but typically do not support a systematic comparison. That was the inspiration for this demonstration, employing automatically taken photographs and arranging them so that one could easily go back in time to reflect oneself to the future and past. This is useful for tracking well-being and body changes using time physicalization with a natural interface, as well as an unobtrusive way for systematic capturing of facial images over time.

HeartMe: Thermochromic Display as An Expression of Heart Health

The amplification of biodata through dynamic textile displays opens the potential for novel ways of communicating our emotions, health and of understanding others. In this paper, we present HeartMe: a provocation of awareness in heart disease by using thermochromic displays. We present our design process to create three displays with different thermochromic textile patterns and heating circuits. Different variables were used such as heating up timing, cooling down timing and temperature in order to create dynamic and controllable interfaces with thermochromic inks. They interact with user's heartbeat rates, exploring the possibilities of thermochromic as social displays.

SenseCenser: an Interactive Device for Sensing Incense Smoke & Supporting Memorialization Rituals in Japan

SenseCenser is a device that senses the act of placing incense chips into it and, subsequently, the volume of incense smoke produced as the chips burn. These values can be connected to various applications, such as lighting equipment, sound systems, showing (moving) images, and more specific installations at particular rituals (e.g., a funeral ceremony). We designed SenseCenser to investigate the potential role and place of interactive technologies in supporting for Japanese funeral and memorialization rituals. This paper introduces its technical architecture and also how it will be demonstrated at the DIS2018 conference.

Gaze Controlled Interface For Limited Mobility Environment

This paper investigates design constraints for developing GUI (Graphical User Interfaces) in limited mobility environments. In particular, we have presented a gaze controlled interface for users with severe physical impairment and for pilots in military aviation who are constrained by situational impairment. We have developed and implemented algorithms to investigate visual search pattern and improve pointing and selection tasks in eye gaze controlled GUI. User studies in both environments show that for situational impaired users, there is improved flying performance and significant reduction in pointing and selection times for secondary mission control tasks compared to existing interaction systems.

RIPT: Improvising with an Audience-Sourced Performance Robot

Improvisational theatre (improv) actors develop narratives in real-time as they perform unscripted scenes together. Audience suggestions build engagement and introduce randomness into the scene; however, actors have difficulty mediating or responding to audience suggestions at scale. We present Robot Improv Puppet Theatre (RIPT), a system for short-form improv where a performance robot (Pokey) performs gestures and dialogue provided by audience members via a mobile interface. Improvisers' narratives are shaped in response to the robot's actions, guiding narratives into unexpected directions.

The Living Tree: Using Surface Transducers to Explore the Secret Life of Trees through Sonic Interactions

This paper presents the demo of the interactive listening installation The Living Tree, where surface transducers were deployed in a real-life setting to design immersive and affectively engaging sonic interactions exploring the life of trees. The surface transducer technology emits vibrations through whatever material you press it against, turning the material into a speaker. We present the design of the project which we will demo at DIS and elaborate on how surface transducers can be used as a design material for creating rich interactive experiences.

LightSight: A Dice to Meet the Eyes

This paper introduces LightSight, a new interactive toy for children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI). Since affected children face different challenges in their perception and processing of information, it is important to provide them with appropriate tools to train their vision skills and related competencies. To address this need, we designed a tangible and illuminated dice, which wirelessly communicates with a game running on a tablet (dice and game together form LightSight). This concept should provide a playful way for the children to train their vision and a range of related motor and cognitive skills (e.g. manipulating the device with their hands, learning shapes etc.). Understanding this interactive toy is simple enough for children who are below the age of 6 years. The paper concludes by discussing the system's design motivations and observations from field deployments.

SketchStudio: Rapid Prototyping Tool for 2.5D Animated Design Scenarios

It is challenging to visualize the end-user experiences of large and complex systems involving various spatial elements and multiple-user interactions. To support experience prototyping of these systems in the early design phases, we present SketchStudio, a prototyping tool for producing animated design scenarios of large and complex systems. The tool allows designers to specify the user experience over time and space by simply composing a node graph. It instantly generates unique 2.5D animated design scenarios by blending 2D sketches and 3D characters. Further, the tool supports virtual reality mode for immersive views of the created scenario prototype.

Monitoring the Emotional Flow of Blind People by Using Physiological Sensors and Smart Glasses

Visually impaired people are difficult to communicate effectively with their environment. In particular, their emotional states are difficult to be captured. In order to better understand the affective states of blind people and assist blind people to access their surroundings, we design and develop an emotional system by using physiological sensors and smart glass, where both emotional flow and visual perception can be visualized on a digital display. The system was first applied at press screenings held by the movie "Blind Road".

SESSION: Doctoral Consortium

Behavior Change Theory and Design: Translational Science Steps and Gaps

Translational Science is the study of the process to turn scientific findings into practical applications. Due to technological and methodological advances, there has been an increase in scientific knowledge output, as well as an expectation by industry, governments, and the public that scientific knowledge should be 'useful'. These aspects could challenge common modes of knowledge dissemination. In my dissertation work, I investigate knowledge dissemination strategies of design-related communities, exploring the complex relationships between inquiry and design. I also design interventions to facilitate dissemination, focusing on the translation and application of behavior change theories into the design of technologies.

Complex Intentions: A Methodology for Contemporary Design Practice

In this interdisciplinary research project, I aim to combine philosophy of technology and computer science in order to develop a design methodology for algorithm awareness. The latter has become an emergent field of research due to the increasing influence of automated processes on everyday life. In this abstract, I show how current research is not yet exhaustive and that existing design theories fall short of accounting for the sociotechnical complexities that are at work in complex adaptive systems. Outlining my research apparatus, I illustrate how I will analyze specific case studies and apply results in use cases.

Multiscale Curation: Supporting Collaborative Design and Ideation

Design is difficult to learn. Novice designers often suffer from many challenges. This research focuses on addressing these challenges by transforming the ways in which designers collect, organize, and archive their design artifacts. This research proposes collaborative multiscale design curation which uses scale to organize and relate design artifacts to support creativity. Multiscale design curation will be investigated in a variety of university courses through an iterative, participatory research through design approach.

Hybrid Aesthetics: Design of New Media Practices within Digital Fabrication

Practices are emerging which blend both physical and computational techniques and materials. This thesis contributes a framework for understanding how to compose these hybrid elements into rich, reflective new media practices that expand the aesthetic repertoire and facilitate the adoption, sharing, and teaching of hybrid techniques.

Connecting Couture: Engaging With the Crafted Textile Interface in an Internet of Things Ecology

Many smart clothing concepts are appearing in research and industry, encompassing disparate disciplines, inhabiting many forms. However, few situated in the Internet of Things (IoT) ecology. Moreover, adding wireless data processing capability can extend their functionality. Highly stylized, speculative, wearable technology (wearables) garments with technologically augmented function (c.f.[1]) have been difficult to place into a broader social context as fashion.

Rapid Smart Environment Prototyping for Early Conceptual Design

Smart environments involving various IoT devices and people in large spaces have become popular yet challenging subject matters of design. Prototyping smart environments reflecting user experiences is expensive and time consuming. Few methods and tools have been investigated to address the needs of the iterative rapid prototyping of the design subjects involving complex interactions in the early design phases. This doctoral research involves investigating methods and tools for rapid smart environment prototyping in the early phase of a design process. Experimental prototyping systems based on conceptual frameworks for dealing with people's interactions in smart environments are proposed and evaluated with professionals in the design field. This research will add to the knowledge on prototyping tools and methods for designers and will contribute to the professional practice of designing inter-connected interactive systems that multiple users use in spaces.

Trust and Community Engagement in Digital Civics: Exploring Opportunities for Design

The work of community engagement performed by public officials in local government provides valuable opportunities for city residents to participate in governance. Technology stands to play an increasingly important role in mediating community engagement; however, currently the practices and relationships that constitute community engagement are understudied in HCI. Of particular importance is the role trust - either establishing trust, or more frequently, overcoming distrust between public officials and city residents. To address this challenge, my research seeks to understand how trust could inform the design of technology to support the work of community engagement performed by public officials in local government. My research will culminate in a design framework that will inform development of technology for community engagement using trust.

Collaborative Design of Health Educational Materials on Anxiety to Increase Mental Health Literacy

Conceptualising mental health literacy as a wicked problem, the project uses visual and interaction design principles and evidence based mental health information to develop a health communication resource on anxiety for multiple stakeholders (young people, their loved ones and mental health professionals). This project is a design response to the challenges of providing visual and interactive representations of anxiety and its invisible and abstract processes, aiming to provide novel ways of engaging with information by designing a new visual language with a shared frame of reference for education and empathy building. To aid the relevance, acceptability and feasibility of resources, the project focuses on using holistic approaches through synthetising and testing a novel, unifying design framework and using collaborative design elements with multiple target audiences. The design outcome will be evaluated from both a design and health perspective.

Design, Maintenance, and the Menstruating Body

In this submission, I discuss my research on the maintenance of public restrooms and, more specifically, the distribution and stratification of menstrual resources throughout the city of Seattle. Through interviews, technology development, and field engagements, I show how digital artifacts-such as those connected to the Internet of Things-structure experiences of hygiene access and help expose the socioeconomic logics undergirding infrastructures of public life. I use design interventions to further examine the role of technology to cultivate and maintain collective responsibility and forms of participatory infrastructure.

Older Adults Designing Avatars for Socializing

In this research I investigate the design and use of virtual avatars (full body representations of the user) among older adults over 65 years old. This research seeks to understand the avatar's designs made by older adults in relation to the ageing body; and how the use of these self-representations impact older adults' experience when socializing online. This thesis firstly uses an exploratory approach to understand the current use of online self-representations among older adults, then design workshops to comprehend older adults' visual choices in relation to the design of humanoid avatars and finally a long-term user study where participants use and reiterate avatar designs through multiple virtual reality social sessions. This research will contribute to the understanding of how older adults use self-representations to connect with others in online environments while providing insights of how to expand character creation interfaces to cater visual preferences of those in older age.

SESSION: Workshop Proposals

Time, Temporality, and Slowness: Future Directions for Design Research

A diverse set of research and design initiatives related to time, temporality, and slowness has emerged in the DIS and HCI communities. The goals of this workshop are to: 1. bring together researchers to reflect on conceptual, methodological, and practice-based outcomes and issues and 2. to develop an agenda for future research in this growing area.

From Artifacts to Architecture

The vision and mission of research under the banner of Ubiquitous Computing has increasingly moved from focusing on the realm of "artifacts" to the realm of "environments". We seek to scrutinize this very transition, and raise questions that relate to the specific attributes of built environments that set them inherently apart from artifacts. How does an interactive environment differ from an interactive artifact, a collection of artifacts, or an integrated suite of artifacts? Consequently, we ask what are the new user experience dimensions that HCI researchers should merge into their considerations, for example, by supplementing usability and engagement with occupants' comfort across multiple dimensions, and shifting attention from (often) short lifespan and discretionary to durable and immersive experiences? In this contribution, we bring arguments from the literature of environmental psychology and architecture that highlight the points of divergence between artifacts and architecture, and then translate them into challenges for Human-Computer Interaction, and particularly for the emerging domain of Human-Building Interaction.

Designing for Everyday Care in Communities

Recent HCI scholarship has begun to incorporate the concept of care as an alternative design lens, moving beyond health care or social care to consider care as a fundamental relational quality of life. This one-day workshop brings together researchers to find a shared understanding of the ways in which interpersonal care and interdependence could be supported through technology design in community contexts. The goal is to raise issues and increase sensitivity towards care, with the ultimate aim of impacting design practices-including how one might design community interactions with and for care. Participants will learn together how such a focus could impact their own research, while mapping and articulating how research and design in HCI-related fields can and does integrate care into sociotechnical systems more broadly.

Let's Get Divorced: Constructing Knowledge Outcomes for Critical Design and Constructive Design Research

Over the last two decades, constructive design research (CDR) - more commonly called Research through Design within HCI - has become an accepted mode of scholarly inquiry within the design research community. It has been described as having three distinct genres: lab, field, and showroom. The lab and field genres typically take a pragmatic stance and typically propose a preferred future. Research done following the showroom approach - more commonly known as critical design (CD), speculative design, or design fictions - typically offers a polemic and a critique of the current state embodied in an artifact. Recently, we have observed a growing conflict within the design research community between pragmatic and critical design researchers [4]. To help reduce this conflict, we called for a divorce between CD and pragmatic CDR, advocating that each approach has its own merits and should be evaluated on its own account. Other design researchers have pushed back on this stance, seeking to create some middle ground to connect these two types of research. In this day-long workshop, we seek to look at exemplar CDR and CD case studies, to develop methods for describing, evaluating, replicating, and making use of knowledge outcomes from these two forms of design research.

The 'Next Billion Users': Designing for Emerging Markets

The number of users coming online for the first time on mobile phones in emerging markets is fast growing. As the trajectory of internet use for these users follows a mobile-first experience, technical and infrastructural constraints impact the overall experience. The workshop aims to identify and discuss salient themes surrounding the technology needs of users in emerging markets that include Asia, Africa and South America. Emphasis will be on how researchers and designers understand these unique needs and the new insights and perspectives needed to design for mobile users in emerging markets.

Designing Interactive Systems to Support and Augment Creativity - A Roadmap for Research and Design

The aims of the workshop are to examine and discuss the current state of research in designing interactive systems to support and augment creative work, and to outline a roadmap for future research initiatives. The workshop will explore methodological issues and approaches, overarching trends and developments, exemplary cases, and future initiatives to study and design systems and tools to augment creative practices. Participation in the workshop requires participants to contribute with a position paper on one of the above topics, and to read and comment on co-participants contributions before the workshop.

Designing within Connected Systems

In this two-day workshop, we investigate how to design in the context of distributed, networked interfaces, dynamic input-output mappings and emergent aesthetics. With this workshop, we aim to complement the theoretical discussion of positions provided by the participants with the hands-on activity of designing and building a networked group interface for music manipulation using Leap Motion® controllers.

Participants engage in a two-stage design process, the first focused on designing individual music controllers and the second on using these in a networked format. We conclude the workshop with a reflection and discussion of what was achieved at both theoretical and experiential levels, and project a roadmap of future activities together.

Manipulating Reality?: Designing and Deploying Virtual Reality in Sensitive Settings

Virtual reality (VR) is now being designed and deployed in diverse sensitive settings, especially for therapeutic purposes. For example, VR experiences are used for diversional therapy in aged care and as therapy for people living with conditions such as phobias and post-traumatic stress. While these uses of VR offer great promise, they also present significant challenges. Given the novelty of VR, its immersive nature, and its impact on the user's sense of reality, it can be particularly challenging to engage participants in co-design and predict what might go wrong when implementing these technologies in sensitive settings. This workshop provides a forum for researchers working in this emerging space to share stories about their experiences of designing and evaluating VR applications in settings such as aged care or mental health therapy. The workshop will develop a manifesto for good practice, outlining co-design strategies and ethical issues to consider when designing and deploying VR in sensitive settings.

Designing for Effective Interactions with Data in the Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT), a type of cyber-physical system, has led to a drastic growth in the number of devices and sensors connected to each other and to the digital word. This has further led to an exponential increase in the amount of data being produced and disseminated throughout such systems.

This data has the potential to provide valuable insights into user behavior that can inform a design process. It also comprises an important aspect of an IoT product or service that an end user might interact to gain actionable insights. For example, when to use energy in the home, how to avoid polluted or flooded areas, or to visit the shops at quiet times. These same users may also be one source of the data that is analysed to provide this intelligence. However, in many case more intelligence is gained by combining different data sets.

This raises questions about how to help both designers and end-users to get the most value from the insights acquired through the combination and analysis of IoT data, whilst being sensitive to issues around privacy and security of data contributed by the public. There is currently no clear framework to support designers in navigating through a design process that uses and combines such complex data.

The aim of this one day workshop is to explore how to effectively incorporate data into a design process and how to design for more effective interactions between humans and data within IoT technologies. It will also create a roadmap for development of new methods and tools to support responsible, data-driven, co-design of new IoT interactive products and services.

Handmaking Food Ideals: Crafting the Design of Future Food-related Technologies

Much technology is designed to help people enact processes faster and more precisely. Yet, these advantages can come at the cost of other, perhaps less tangible, values. In this workshop we aim to articulate values associated with handmade through a co-creative exploration in the food domain. Our objective is to explore the potential of integrating such values into future food-related technologies. In a full day workshop we will: critically reflect on the notion of handmade; engage actively with food-production, plating and consumption-as design material; and conduct collective discussions around the values that these processes and materials can embody when attended to through lenses other than efficiency. By handmaking: touching, smelling, tasting, listening, speaking and enacting choreographies with the materials at hand, we hope to deepen the discussion of the meaning associated with the handmade and bring a richness to ways that designers imagine future food-related technologies.